Pele

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Pele, 2008-nji ýyl

Edson Arantes do Nassimento (Şablon:IPA-pt; 23/10/1940), Pelé hökmünde tanalýar ([peˈlɛ]), hüjümçi hökmünde çykyş eden pensioner professional brazil futbolçysy. Bu sportdaky ýazyjylar, oýunçylar we janköýerler bilen bir hatarda köpler tarapyndan adamzat taryhynyň iň beýik futbolçysy hasaplanýar. Ol 1999-njy ýylda Halkara futbol taryhy we statistikalary federasiýasy (IFFHS) tarapyndan asyryň oýunçysy saýlandy we FIFA asyryň oýunçysy baýragynyň şärikdeş ýeňijisi. Şol bir ýylda Pele Halkara olimpiýa komiteti tarapyndan asyryň atletikaçysy saýlandy. IFFHS-a görä Pele dünýäniň iň öndümli liga bombardiridir, ol gaýryresmi ýoldaşlyk duşuşyklary we sapar oýunlaryny hem öz içine alýan 1363 oýunda 1281 gol urdy. Karýerasy dowam edýän wagtlary Pele iň köp gazanýan atletikaçydy.

Pele 15 ýaşynda Santos futbol klubynda çykyş etmäge başlady we 16 ýaşynda Braziliýa milli ýygyndysynda çykyş etmäge başlady. Halkara karýerasy dowamynda ol 3 FIFA dünýä kubogynda ýeňiji boldy: 1958, 1962 we 1970. Ol bu sepgide ýeten ýeke-täk futbolçydyr. Pele Braziliýa milli ýygyndysy bilen 92 duşuşykda 77 gol urdy we Braziliýa milli ýygyndysy bilen iň köp gol uran futbolçydyr. Ol klub karýerasynda Santosyň iň öndümli golçysydyr we Santosyň 1962 we 1963 Kopa Libertadores-i gazanmagyna öňbaşçylyk etdi. 1977-nji ýylda pensiýa çykmagyndan soňra futbolyň bütindünýä ilçisi boldy we birnäçe dabarada ýer aldy. 2010-njy ýylda Nýu-Ýork Kozmos futbol klubynyň mertebeli prezidenti ykrar edildi.

Irki durmuşy[üýtget | edit source]

1940-njy ýylda Tres Korakwes şäherinde doglan Peleniň adyna  bu şäherde köçe bar – Rua Edson Arantes do Nascimento. Şäherçede Peleniň heýkeli hem dikilen

Pele 1940-njy ýylyň 23-nji oktýabrynda Braziliýanyň Três Corações, Minas Gerais şäherinde doguldy. Ol Fluminense futbolçysy Dondinhonyň ogludyr. Ol 2 doganyň ulusydyr.Şablon:Sfn Ol Amerikan alymy Tomas Edison hormatyna atlandyrylan. Onuň ene-atasy "i" harpyny aýryp oňa "Edson" diýip at berse-de ony "Edison" diýip ýalňyş atlandyrýan resminamalar köpdür.[1] Ol aslynda maşgalasy tarapyndan "Diko" diýlen lakam bilen çagyrylýardy.[2] "Pele" lakamyny ol çagaka öz söýgüli Wasko Da Gama derwezebany Bileniň adyny Pele hökmünde ýalňyş tutmagy sebäpli aldy. Öz biografiýasynda Pele "Pele" sözüniň manysyny özüniň hem dostlarynyň hem bilmeýändigini aýtdy.Şablon:Sfn Pele sözüniň Portugal dilinde manysy ýokdur.[3]

Pele Sao Paolo ştatynyň Bauru şäherinde ýoksullykda önüp-ösdi.

Ýetginjeklikdäki futbol karýerasy[üýtget | edit source]

Pele ýetginjeklik ýyllarynda Sete de Setembro, Kanto do Rio, Sao Paulinýo we Amerkuinýa ýaly birnäçe öwrenje klublarda çykyş etdi.[4] Pele Bauru ýetginjekler toparyny 2 gezek Sao Paolo ştaty ýetginjekler çempionatynda çempionlyga ýetmegine öňbaşçylyk etdi.[5] 15 ýaşlary töweregi ol Radium atly futzal klubynda hem çykyş etdi.[6]

Professional futbol karýerasy[üýtget | edit source]

Klub karýerasy[üýtget | edit source]

1956-njy ýylda Pele 15 ýaşyndaka Waldemar de Brito Peleni Santos futbol klubyna synaga eltdi we klub ýolbaşçylaryna "bu 15 ýaşly oglanjyk dünýäniň iň beýik futbolçysy bolar" diýdi.[7] Pele Santos kluby bilen 1956-njy ýylyň Sentýabr aýynda şertnama baglaşdy.[8] Pele Santos futbol kluby bilen 1974-nji ýyla çenli çykyş etdi, 19 möwsüm. Ondan soňra ABŞ-nyň Nýu-Ýork kozmos futbol kluby bilen şertnama baglaşdy we o ýerde 1977-nji ýyla çenli çykyş etdi.

Sepgitleri[üýtget | edit source]

Santos FK[üýtget | edit source]
  • Campeonato Brasileiro Série A (6): 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968[9]
  • Kopa Libertadores (2): 1962, 1963[10][11]
  • Intercontinental Cup (2): 1962, 1963[12]
  • Intercontinental Superkubok: 1968
  • Campeonato Paulista (10): 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1973[13]
  • Torneio Rio-São Paulo (4): 1959, 1963, 1964[14]
Nýu-Ýork kozmos[üýtget | edit source]
  • North American Soccer League, Soccer Bowl 1977[15]
  • North American Soccer League, Atlantic Conference Championship: 1977
Milli ýygyndy[üýtget | edit source]

FIFA dünýä kubogy: 1958, 1962 we 1970.[16]

Indiwidual[üýtget | edit source]
Santos[üýtget | edit source]
Braziliýa[üýtget | edit source]
  • FIFA Dünýä kubogy iň gowy ýaş oýunçy: 1958.[20]
  • FIFA Dünýä kubogy altyn topy (iň gowy oýunçy): 1970.
  • Kopa Amerika iň gowy oýunçysy: 1959.
  • Kopa Amerika bombardiri: 1959
Beýlekiler[üýtget | edit source]
  • FIFA Ballon d'Or Prix d'Honneur: 2013[21]
  • Ballan d'or (7 gezek): 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1970.[22]
  • FIFA asyryň oýunçysy: 2000.[23]
  • FIFA order of merit: 1984.[24]
  • FIFA Centennial Award: 2004[25]
  • FIFA 100 Greatest Living Footballers: 2004.[26]
  • South American Footballer of the Year: 1973.[27]
  • France Football asyryň oýunçysy: 1999.[28]

Rekortlary[üýtget | edit source]

  • Braziliýa milli ýygyndysy ähli wagtlaryň bombardiri: 92 oýunda 77 gol.[29]
  • Santos FK ähli wagtlaryň bombardiri: 656 oýunda 643 gol.[30]
  • Interkontinental kubogy ähli wagtlaryň bombardiri: 7 gol.[31]
  • Iň köp hettrik: 92 gezek.[32]
  • Guinnes rekortlary iň köp gol: 1281.[33]
  • Iň köp FIFA Dünýä kubogy ýeňijisi: 3 gezek.[34]
  • FIFA Dünýä kubogynda iň ýaş çempion: 17 ýyl 249 gün.[35]
  • FIFA Dünýä kubogynda iň ýaş hettrik: 17 ýyl 244 gün.[36]
  • FIFA Dünýä kubogynda gol uran iň ýaş futbolçy: 17 ýyl 239 gün.[37][38]
  • FIFA Dünýä kubogy finalynda gol uran iň ýaş oýunçy: 17 ýyl 249 gün.[39]

Futboldan soňrasy[üýtget | edit source]

Pele, ABŞ prezidenti Ronald Reagan we Braziliýa prezidenti José Sarney
  • Pele 1994-nji ýylda ÝUNESKO tarapyndan ýagşy niýet ilçisi hökmünde wezipä bellenildi.[40]
  • 1995-nji ýylda Braziliýanyň adatdan daşary sport ministri hökmünde wezipä bellendi. Futbolda korrupsiýany azaltmak maksatly "Pele kanuny" atly kanun hödürledi ministrlik möwritinde. Pele bu wezipesinden 2001-nji ýylda özi barada öňe çykan parahorlyk spekulýasiýalaryndan soňra boşadyldy bu spekulýasiýalar subut edilmedik we UNICEF tarapyndan inkär edilen hem bolsa.[41]
  • 1997-nji ýylda Birleşen Şalyk şazenany tarapynda rysarlyk tituly bilen sylaglandyryldy.[42]
  • Pele birnäçe eserler ýazdy, käbir filmlerde rol aldy.

References[üýtget | edit source]

  1. Narcía, Eva. "Un siglo, diez historias" (in Spanish). BBC World Service. Retrieved 21 June 2010. 
  2. "From Edson to Pelé: my changing identity". The Guardian (London). 12 May 2006. https://www.theguardian.com/football/2006/may/13/sport.comment9. İstifadə tarixi: 1 October 2006.
  3. Winterman, Denise (4 January 2006). "Taking the Pelé". BBC News. Arxivləşdirilib: [1] saytından 23 November 2008 tarixində. https://web.archive.org/web/20081123121709/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4578032.stm. İstifadə tarixi: 1 July 2010.
  4. Heizer, Teixeira (1997). O jogo bruto das copas do mundo. Mauad Editora Ltda. p. 324. ISBN 8585756527.
  5. Magill, Frank Northen (1999) Dictionary of World Biography: The 20th century, O-Z. Routledge. p. 4175. ISBN 1579580483.
  6. "Pele Speaks of Benefits of Futebol de Salão". International Confederation of Futebol de Salão. 24 May 2006. 2016-njy ýylyň 24-nji maýynda aslyndan arhiwlendi.
  7. Massarela, Louis (7 September 2016). "Exclusive interview: Pele on his Santos years". FourFourTwo. 2017-nji ýylyň 28-nji iýulynda ulaşyldy.
  8. Marcus, Joe (1976). The World of Pelé. Mason Charter Publishing. p. 200. ISBN 0884053660.
  9. "Pelé o atleta do século". globo.com. 3 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  10. Pierrend, José Luis; Beuker, John; Ciullini, Pablo; Gorgazzi, Osvaldo. "Copa Libertadores de América 1962". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  11. Pierrend, José Luis; Beuker, John; Ciullini, Pablo; Gorgazzi, Osvaldo. "Copa Libertadores de América 1963". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  12. “Recopa Intercontinental 1968/69”. Rsssf. Retrieved 1 June 2018
  13. "FIFA 18 World Cup Icons player ratings revealed: Pele, Gary Lineker and the 17 classic players". Bristol Post. 27 June 2018. https://www.bristolpost.co.uk/sport/uk-sport-news/fifa-18-world-cup-icons-1622954.
  14. Pontes, Ricardo (18 January 2002). "Torneio Rio-São Paulo -- List of Champions". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  15. Litterer, David A. (14 May 2010). "North American Soccer League". Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 24 July 2017. 
  16. "Pelé: Most wins of the FIFA World Cup by a player". Guinness World Records. 14 December 2017. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records/hall-of-fame/pele-most-wins-of-the-fifa-world-cup-by-a-player.
  17. Andres, Juan Pablo; Ballesteros, Frank; Di Maggio, Roberto. "Copa Libertadores - Topscorers". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  18. "Todos os Artilheiros do Torneio Rio-São Paulo" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016. 
  19. Casari, Yuri (27 July 2015). "Bola de Prata Placar 1970" (in Portuguese). Escrevendo Futebol. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2015.  Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  20. 1958 FIFA World Cup Sweden – Awards FIFA. Retrieved 6 May 2011
  21. "Pele receives FIFA Ballon d'Or Prix d'Honneur". FIFA. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014
  22. Crépin, Timothé (2 December 2015). "Pelé devait être le recordman" (in French). France Football. 
  23. "The King of football". FIFA. 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  24. "FIFA Order of Merit" (PDF). FIFA. p. 2. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  25. "FIFA Centennial Award" (PDF). Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  26. "Pele's list of the greatest". BBC. 4 March 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/3533891.stm.
  27. Pierrend, José Luis (22 December 2000). "South American Player of the Year 1973". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 
  28. Stokkermans, Karel (23 December 2015). "France Football's Football Player of the Century". Rec.Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 16 July 2017. 
  29. Mamrud, Roberto (2 March 2015). "Brazil – Record International Players: Goalscoring for Brazil National Team". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  30. "Which footballer has scored the most goals for a single club?". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/football/2017/jan/11/which-footballer-has-scored-the-most-goals-for-a-single-club-the-knowledge. İstifadə tarixi: 28 July 2018.
  31. Kolos, Vladimir (21 January 2016). "Prolific Scorers Data". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  32. Archive: Brazil legend Pele retires from professional football BBC Sport. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015
  33. Lynch, Kevin (30 October 2013). "Pelé honoured with two Guinness World Records achievements in London". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 16 July 2017. 
  34. Lynch, Kevin (30 October 2013). "Pelé honoured with two Guinness World Records achievements in London". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 16 July2017.
  35. "Youngest winner of the football (soccer) FIFA World Cup". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  36. Planet World Cup - Statistics - Players Planet World Cup. Retrieved 19 October 2015
  37. Planet World Cup - Statistics - Players Planet World Cup. Retrieved 19 October 2015
  38. "The King of football". FIFA. 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  39. Dhar, Pulasta (9 June 2014). "World Cup 1958 and 1962: The story of Brazil and Pele begins...". First Post. http://www.firstpost.com/sports/world-cup-1958-and-1962-the-story-of-brazil-and-pele-begins-1489947.html. İstifadə tarixi: 29 July 2017.
  40. "World Sport Humanitarian Hall of Fame Inductees – Pelé". Sports Humanitarian. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  41. "Pele Law on sports introduced in Brazil". BBC News. 25 March 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/69438.stm. İstifadə tarixi: 9 July 2017.
  42. "Education: Sir Pele lends his support". The Independent. 3 December 1997. Retrieved 6 May2011.