Mazmuna geçiň

Kürtler

Wikipediýa, erkin ensiklopediýa
Kürtler
Jemi ilat sany
c. 45 million[1][2]
Sebitler we ilat sanlary
Türkiýe20,000,000[2][1]
Eýran12,000,000[2][1]
Yrak8,500,000[2][1]
Siriýa3,600,000[2][1]
Owganystan200,000[3][4]
Azarbeýjan180,000[5][6]
Gazagystan47,930[7]
Gyrgyzstan13,200[8]
Türkmenistan6,090[9]
Diller
Kürtçe
Din
Esasan Sunni Islam, azlyk Shia Islam

Kürtler (kürt. کورد) ýa-da kürt halky, günorta-gündogar Türkiýäniň, demirgazyk-günbatar Eýranyň, demirgazyk Yragyň we Siriýanyň demirgazygyndaky Günbatar Aziýanyň Kürdüstan daglyk sebitinde doglan Eýran etnik toparydyr. Merkezi Anadolyda, Horasanda we Kawkazda kürtleriň eksklawlary, şeýle hem günbatar Türkiýäniň (esasanam Stambul ) we Günbatar Europeewropanyň (esasanam Germaniýada ) şäherlerinde möhüm kürt diaspora jemgyýetleri bar. Kürt ilatynyň 30 bilen 45 aralygyndadygy çak edilýär milion.[10]

Häzirki zaman taryhy[düzet | çeşmäni düzet]

Kürtler kürt dillerinde we Eýran dilleriniň Günbatar Eýran şahasyna degişli Zaza - Gorani dillerinde gürleýärler. Birinji jahan urşy we Osman imperiýasy ýeňilenden soň, ýeňiş gazanan Günbatar ýaranlary 1920-nji ýyldaky Söwres şertnamasynda kürt döwletini üpjün etdi. Şeýle-de bolsa, Lozanna şertnamasy häzirki Türkiýäniň çägini kesgitlänsoň we üç ýyl soň bozuldy, täze ýurtlaryň hemmesinde kürtler azlyk statusyna eýe boldy.[11] Kürtleriň soňky taryhynda Türk, Eýran, Siriýa we Yrak Kürdüstanda dowam edýän ýaragly çaknyşyklar bilen birlikde köp sanly genosid we gozgalaň bar. Yrakdaky we Siriýadaky kürtleriň özbaşdak sebitleri bar, kürt hereketleri bolsa tutuş Kürdüstanda has uly medeni hukuklary, özbaşdaklygy we garaşsyzlygy dowam etdirýär.

Din we dil[düzet | çeşmäni düzet]

Kürtleriň köpüsi Şafygy mekdebine uýýan sünni musulmanlar, ep-esli azlyk bolsa Hanafi mekdebine.[12] Sünni yslamdan başga-da, alewizm we şaýy yslamda millionlarça kürt tarapdarlary bar.[13]

Kürtler kürt dilinde gürleýärler. Kürt diliniň üç şiwesi bar, Demirgazyk Kürtçe, Merkezi Kürtçe, we Günorta Kürtçe.[14]

Salgylanmalar[düzet | çeşmäni düzet]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 The Kurdish Population by the Kurdish Institute of Paris, 2017 estimate. The Kurdish population is estimated at 15–20 million in Turkey, 10–12 million in Iran, 8–8.5 million in Iraq, 3–3.6 million in Syria, 1.2–1.5 million in the European diaspora, and 400k–500k in the former USSR—for a total of 36.4 million to 45.6 million globally.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The World Factbook (Online ed.). Langley, Virginia: US Central Intelligence Agency. 2015. ISSN 1553-8133. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2015.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) A rough estimate in this edition gives populations of 14.3 million in Turkey, 8.2 million in Iran, about 5.6 to 7.4 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to approximately 28–30 million Kurds in Kurdistan or in adjacent regions. The CIA estimates are Şablon:As of – Turkey: Kurdish 18%, of 81.6 million; Iran: Kurd 10%, of 81.82 million; Iraq: Kurdish 15–20%, of 37.01 million, Syria: Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%, of 17.01 million.
  3. Cigerxwin, Tarixa Kurdistan, I (Stockholm: Weşanên Roja Nû, 1985), p. 17.
  4. "The Kurdish Diaspora". Institutkurde.org. 
  5. The cultural situation of the Kurds, A report by Lord Russell-Johnston, Council of Europe, July 2006.
  6. Ismet Chériff Vanly, “The Kurds in the Soviet Union”, in: Philip G. Kreyenbroek & S. Sperl (eds.), The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview (London: Routledge, 1992). pg 164: Table based on 1990 estimates: Azerbaijan (180,000), Armenia (50,000), Georgia (40,000), Kazakhstan (30,000), Kyrghizistan (20,000), Uzbekistan (10,000), Tajikistan (3,000), Turkmenistan (50,000), Siberia (35,000), Krasnodar (20,000), Other (12,000), Total 450,000
  7. "Ethnic composition of Kazakhstan 2021". Retrieved 4 July 2022. 
  8. "Number of resident population by selected nationality" (PDF). United Nations. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  9. Итоги всеобщей переписи населения Туркменистана по национальному составу в 1995 году. (in Russian). asgabat.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  10. Based on arithmetic from World Factbook and other sources cited herein: A Near Eastern population of 28–30 million, plus approximately a 2 million diaspora gives 30–32 million.
  11. Who are the Kurds? by BBC News, 31 October 2017
  12. Sarigil, Zeki; Fazlioglu, Omer (2014). "Exploring the roots and dynamics of Kurdish ethno-nationalism in Turkey" (PDF). Nations and Nationalism (Bilkent University) 20 (3): 447. doi:10.1111/nana.12058. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-12-18. Retrieved 2022-12-18.  Unknown parameter |hdl-access= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |hdl= ignored (help)
  13. McDowall, David (1992). The Kurds: A Nation Denied. Minority Rights Group. p. 57. ISBN 9781873194300. 
  14. G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp. 1–58, 2009: "The classification of the Kurdish dialects is not an easy task, despite the fact that there have been numerous attempts mostly by Kurdish authors to put them into a system. However, for the time being the commonly accepted classification of the Kurdish dialects is that of the late Prof. D. N. Mackenzie, the author of fundamental works in Kurdish dialectology (see Mackenzie 1961; idem 1961–1962; idem 1963a; idem 1981), who distinguished three groups of dialects: Northern, Central, and Southern."